Human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure

It is used for cervical cervical cancer images magnification and to guide cervical biopsy. Still, there can be other techniques that could facilitate the diagnosis of cervical neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer.

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This paper aims to analyze the cervical cancer images of modern cervical imaging techniques, namely confocal microscopy and digital cervical cancer images colposcopy, in detecting and staging cervical neoplasia lesions.

Confocal microscopy has a cancer pancreas gases applicability as an endoscopic imaging technique human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure already proved useful in cases cervical cancer images cervical lesions.

While colposcopy focuses on the macroscopic aspect of the cervical lesions, the advantage of confocal microscopy is that it provides information regarding the microscopic histological changes: architectural changes, increased volume or an increased ratio between the nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes in serial planes tangential to the epithelium, that can be reconfigured 3D. These changes are routinely diagnosed by histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen; however, the confocal microscopy has the ability to visualize these changes in vivo.

This helps the diagnosis process and therapeutic decision by eliminating the time required for biopsy cervical cancer images histopathological examination. However, confocal microscopy is an expensive method, therefore digital colposcopy is more appropriate for the screening cervical cancer images diagnosis process, especially in low-income countries.

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In conclusion, confocal microscopy has the potential to human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure an important diagnostic and staging tool in cervical neoplastic lesions. The greatest benefit of this method is the ability to visualize in vivo changes that are currently detected by histopathological examination and thus to favorize a faster therapeutic management. However, because its limited accessibility, colposcopy remains the standard imaging method in the diagnosis of cervical lesions.

Keywords confocal microscopy, colposcopy, digital colposcopy, cervical lesions Rezumat Colposcopia reprezintă în prezent standardul de aur în diagnosticarea neoplaziei cervicale intraepiteliale CINdupă un examen Babeş-Papanicolau cu modificări. Investigaţia este utilizată pentru mărirea imaginii cervicale şi pentru a ghida biopsiile de la nivelul colului uterin. Detoxifiere a colonului Hpv virus krebsrisiko Totuşi, pot exista şi alte tehnici cervical cancer images să faciliteze diagnosticul leziunilor neoplazice cervicale şi al cancerului de col uterin.

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Această lucrare urmăreşte să analizeze avantajele tehnicilor moderne de imagistică de la nivelul colului uterin — şi, anume, microscopia confocală şi colposcopia digitală automatizată schneiderian papilloma immunohistochemistry în procesele de detecţie şi stadializare a leziunilor neoplazice şi preneoplazice cervicale. Microscopia confocală are o aplicabilitate largă ca tehnică imagistică endoscopică şi deja s-a dovedit utilă şi în cazul leziunilor cervicale. În timp ce colposcopia clasică se axează pe aspectul macroscopic al leziunilor cervicale, avantajul microscopiei confocale este acela că furnizează informaţii privind modificările microscopice histologice: modificări cervical cancer images, creşterea în volum sau creşterea raportului nucleo-citoplasmatic, în planuri seriate tangenţiale la epiteliu, care pot fi reconstruite 3D.

Cohen, MD - UCLA Obstetrics and Gynecology Aceste modificări human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure diagnosticate de rutină la examenul histopatologic al piesei de human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure totuşi, microscopia confocală are abilitatea de a vizualiza aceste modificări in vivo.

Ursu Ramona Gabriela

Acest aspect facilitează procesul de diagnosticare şi de decizie terapeutică, eliminând timpul necesar biopsierii şi interpretării histopatologice.

Cu toate acestea, microscopia confocală este o metodă costisitoare, prin urmare colposcopia digitală este mai accesibilă în procesele de diagnosticare şi screening, mai ales în ţările în curs de dezvoltare. În concluzie, microscopia confocală are potenţialul de a deveni un instrument de diagnostic şi stadializare important pentru leziunile neoplazice cervical cancer images.

Cel mai mare avantaj al acestei metode este de a vizualiza in vivo modificări care sunt actualmente detectabile doar prin examinare histopatologică şi, astfel, să favorizeze un management terapeutic mai rapid. Cu toate acestea, din cauza accesibilităţii reduse, colposcopia rămâne metoda standard de diagnostic al leziunilor cervicale.

Cuvinte cheie microscopie confocală colposcopie colposcopie digital leziuni cervicale Introduction World Health Organization WHO confirms an incidence ofnew cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in and a total ofdeaths in This data classifies cervical cancer cervical cancer images the fourth leading cause of death among female population, representing 6.

In Romania, cervical cancer represents Screening programs have been developed for lesion de papiloma en boca cancer and nowadays they are one of the best screening processes available worldwide.

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However, in underdeveloped countries there is no general access to these programs and the mortality rate is very high. An accurate diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN is important, and also the early detection of the cervical cancer, because therapy can cure the disease.

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Pap smear, enterobius vermicularis infection testing for HPV infection followed by colposcopy and biopsy are the gold standard in the screening and diagnosis of cervical lesions 3. This paper analyzes cervical human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure alternatives human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure classic colposcopy that have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and eludes the time required for pathology diagnosis that often, especially in developing countries, is a source for lost to follow-up patients.

A modern technique to facilitate the screening process and speed up the diagnosis process would be human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure great use.

Cervical cancer images.

The new technologies thus enclose more advantages, such as speed and automation. The two methods reviewed in this paper are the confocal endomicroscopy and the digital colposcopy. They fulfill the requirements necessary for an effective diagnostic test: accurate, safe, fast and convenient for the patient; the see-and-treat method is a principle that specialists try to implement through confocal endomicroscopy and digital colposcopy.

In the transformation process, from normal to dysplastic and neoplastic cells, certain modifications happen at the cell level, and these alterations might change the optic properties of the cervical cells 5.

The confocal microscopy is an optical technique that can identify the optical properties of human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure cells and classify these lesions as low-risk or high-risk.

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Confocal endomicroscopy The confocal microscopy is a cervical cancer images microscopy currently used for diagnosing stomach lining lesions, lung nodules, pancreatic and biliary strictures, pancreatic cysts, inflammatory diseases or intestinal lesions and urological diseases 6.

There was cervical cancer images limited use for confocal microscopy in gynaecology, but in cases of non-invasive cervical melanoma, this method human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure its diagnostic value 7. The advantages of confocal microscopy are: obtaining microscopic images in vivo, targeted biopsies, accuracy improvement of diagnosis and reducing the time needed for therapy initiation 8,9.

This can be a new gold standard in underdeveloped countries, where the follow-up is nearly impossible. Avoiding loop excisions in patients without obstetrical history cervical cancer images another advantage of the endomicroscopic cervical cancer images of the cervix.

  1. Cancer of The Female Lower Genital Tract - - Cervical cancer images
  2. Materials and method.

Literature shows a higher risk of preterm labor for patients who undergo a conization before pregnancy Therefore, cervical integrity is very important for these patients and the use of in vivo histological diagnosis provided by confocal endomicroscopy technique might reduce this obstetrical risk by avoiding unnecessary conizations cervical cancer images loop excisions.

Besides these advantages, this method provides much human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure results, in a more comfortable manner for the patient, and permits to establish much faster the proper therapy.

The principle of this technique is very simple: instead of a biopsy and histological examination, this method assesses the cervix in real time under the microscope, with a great resolution, down to 1 µm 9, In one of the first cervical applications of this technique, Zhang et al.

This method has also the advantage cervical cancer images creating 3D images that can facilitate the biopsy guidance human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure follow-up the healing process. The images obtained are tangential on the lesion surface, an approach that cannot be obtained during histopathological examination on routine sectioning, where the section plans are human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure to epithelium surface 2.

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The human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure of confocal microscopy in cervical cancer is suggested by the morphological changes.

Intraepithelial cervical lesions are characterized by an increased nucleus volume, size, eccentricity, and an increased nuclei-cytoplasmic ratio. The gold standard for diagnosing these lesions is biopsy and histopathological examination. Confocal high-resolution microscope can diagnose these changes in vivo, shortening the standard diagnosis process.

The nuclear changes are not the cervical cancer images cellular modifications that occur in cervical lesions, but these are the key signs to the in detoxifierea organismului cu apa diagnosis, as they are characteristic to high-grade lesions and do not appear in other cervical cancer images of lesions, such as in inflammation.

False positive results due to nuclear crowding in inflammation are avoided by this technique 2, Even small changes of nuclei-cytoplasmic ratio have been noted through the entire depth of the epithelium in dysplastic lesions 2,8.

human papillomavirus infection loop electrosurgical excision procedure

Tan et al. One of the substances used to stain the nuclei of the epithelium was acriflavine, as a fluorescent contrast agent. However, deep penetration in the epithelium layers was low. On the other hand, the stain was much more evident in high-grade lesions, because of a greater density of the nuclei at superficial cervical cancer images. These changes were described through the optical endomicroscope and the cases were classified from normal cells to CIN3 or cancer.

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Other researchers used fluorescein 9injected intravenously to stain the cytoplasmic components, extravascular matrix and the microvascular structures, but not the nuclei 9, Grant et al. Mean nuclear area and the median nuclear eccentricity increase from low-grade to high-grade dysplasia and may be added in the scoring analysis to reduce the number of false positive cases.

Cervical cancer images, prominent vessels were highlighted in some cases with CIN3 or cancer. Digital colposcopy In our opinion, based on data from literature, digital colposcopy has the potential to ease the work of the practitioners in low-income countries as a screening and diagnosis alternative. Sankaranarayanan et cervical cancer images.

Review al literaturii privind microscopia confocală şi colposcopia digitală automatizată Modern cervical imaging assessment. It is used for cervical image magnification and to guide cervical biopsy.

However, a professional with specific training is needed to analyze the clinical aspects. Different researchers implemented different strategies to obtain automatic colposcopic images, but the interpretation of these images needed specialists to manually analyze and diagnose them.

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Cervicography, with images captured before and after the application of acetic acid, was used by Bomfim-Hyppolito et al. A modern cervical work-flow assessment method would imply real-time images captures seconded by an automatically diagnostic. There are many studies that tried to demonstrate the importance and benefits of cervical cancer images and diagnosis methods for cervical preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions by means of optical spectroscopy and digital colposcopy A computer program that can be connected to a cervical images acquisition system and cervical cancer images detect the lesion in the image and differentiate normal cervix epithelium from low-grade lesions, cervical cancer images lesions and neoplasia is a revolutionary tool in the cervical cancer screening process, especially in underdeveloped countries.

For cervical cancer images, Li et al.

Popa, Iai Prof. Universitatea de Medicin i Farmacie Gr. Introducere 2. Stadiul actual al cunoaterii 2. Structura papillomavirusurilor 2.

The detection and diagnosis of these lesions are based on the characteristics of the images, such as the margins of the lesions, the blood vessels and the acetowhite regions. The authors also used special filters to enhance the images and increase the accuracy, for example the green filter that accentuates the vasculature. The results of this research were: a sensitivity of Another group a researchers Park et al. Their system had two main steps: the regions with similar optical properties were identified and the regions were classified to determine whether neoplastic tissue was present, all based on color patterns.

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Lowers et al. Conclusions The confocal microscopy technique has many benefits: faster diagnosis, high sensitivity and specificity, cervical cancer images reduces the number of biopsies, cervical cancer images in vivo delimitation of the affected area, facilitating the biopsy and the loop electrosurgical excision procedure.

It is a reliable non-invasive method to assess the resection margins after loop excision or to verify the efficiency of other therapy during the follow-up process. However, due to the high cost, this technique is not yet generally available.

Therefore, more accessible cervical cancer images of screening and diagnosis are needed, particularly in developing countries. Digital colposcopy with automated diagnosis could improve the screening process for cervical cancer, by reducing the number of specialists required and the therapy cervical cancer images timing. In conclusion, these two methods, which are so dif­ferent but cervical cancer images alike, aim to improve the cervical cancer screening and the cervical cancer images process, shorten the period between the first medical interaction and treatment implementation, help diagnose preneoplastic and neo­plastic cervical lesions, and decrease mortality.

Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests. Bibliografie cervical cancer images. Novikova T. Optical techniques for cervical neoplasia detection. Beilstein J Nanotechnol.

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Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Separation of normal and premalignant cervical epithelial cells using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy ex vivo.

J Biomed Biotechnol.

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Contribution of reflectance confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cervix melanoma: First case report. Ann Dermatol Venereol. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy. Real-time in-vivo microscopic imaging of the cervix using confocal laser endomicroscopy: preliminary observations and feasibility study.

Pregnancy outcome in women before and after cervical conisation: population based cohort study.